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Energy generation from biomass

Biomass is one of the most common renewable energy source, that has been used as a fuel for years. Energy conversion from biomass is associated with thermochemical processes of fuel conversion (combustion, gasification, pyrolysis).

Energy obtained from agricultural biomass and  industrial waste is of the biggest interest. These materials are much more humid than pure biomass obtained from forestry, so they are much more challenging in terms of use for power engineering purposes. The basic knowledge about the characteristic of the fuel is of the importance. It comprises of knowledge about the chemical composition, characteristics of  fuel distribution (release of volatiles, pyrolysis), ash characteristics (softening, melting, sintering) and slagging. It is necessary to examine the kinetics of the reactions, with the emphasis put on heterogeneous reactions and its numerical modelling. 

Biomass conversion processes has been  already used on industrial scale, but in fact biomass serves better as a fuel for local power plans, which do not require expensive raw biomass transport. That is the reason for direction of the newest research – development of mini – and micro-CHP (units of power not exciding 1 MW).  

Economic analyses of new technologies for biomass combustion are essential, as they need to be economically workable. 

Thermal Processes Department and Fuel Cell Department are involved in technical issues concerning biomass combustion, while economic aspects are under evaluation of the Economic Section and CENERG – Energy Research Integration Centre.